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What is vitrectomy? 

Vitrectomy consists of a small incision surgery, minimally invasive at the vitreous level, using material specially developed for this technique.

It can be performed frequently on a street basis and with local anaesthesia, currently with excellent results in many cases.

When is a vitrectomy performed?

Vitrectomy is a surgery that must be performed mainly to remove the vitreous humour because it prevents correct vision, for example, because there has been vitreous haemorrhage, commonly caused by pathologies such as diabetic retinopathy or complications of retinal venous thrombosis.

There are also other reasons related to the following eye diseases:

  • Diabetic retinopathy.
  • Retinal detachment.
  • Diseases of the macula.
  • Visual diseases associated with high myopia.
  • Inflammation of the eye
  • In some cases of uveitis to treat diseases derived from this ocular pathology.

How is the preoperative?

To perform a vitrectomy, it is necessary that the ophthalmologist specialist perform the following main diagnostic tests beforehand:


It is an evaluation of the fundus when it cannot be observed in any other way. To do this, the eye is numbed with anaesthetic drops. High-frequency sound waves have used that travel through the eye, and the “echoes” of these waves form an image of the ocular structure.

Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

It is a simple and non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that serves for the detailed exploration of the retina, specifically the macula, and the optic nerve. Thanks to this technique, the ophthalmologist specialist can achieve greater control and monitoring of retinal diseases.

Fluorescein angiography

It consists of injecting a contrast (fluorescein) to assess fundus pathologies.

Electrophysiological test

It consists of a diagnostic test that records the electrical stimulation of the eye to detect problems in the retina and, in general, in the entire optic pathway to the cerebral cortex.

How is the vitrectomy operation?

Vitrectomy surgery, which is performed with ambulatory anaesthesia, is presented with fragile instruments that are inserted into the eyeball through tiny incisions in the external or scleral wall:

  • A fibre optic light to illuminate the retina.
  • An irrigation cannula to maintain intraocular pressure.
  • An instrument that cuts and extracts the vitreous gel.

Depending on the pathology to be treated, the patient can be introduced into the eye liquid like the one that fills the anterior part of the eye, gas or silicone oil.

How is postoperative?

Once the surgery is finished, during the postoperative period, the ophthalmologist will need several follow-up consultations for at least one month.

The next day, the patient may remove the occlusive patch, however, will notice some slight discomfort after the intervention, especially when blinking. You may also have a red eye or a foreign body sensation.

It is recommended not to make sudden movements with the head and intense physical exercise at least during the first week. The recovery is not immediate since injecting the substances of gas or silicone oil cause the first week’s bad vision until it is gradually recovering.

The indicated treatment will consist of:

  • Anti-inflammatories and antibiotics to reduce inflammation and prevent infections.
  • Cyclopedic drops to give mobility to the pupil.
  • Drops to control intraocular pressure if necessary.


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